C TUTORIALS

Learn C Programming

For the overview, history and character-set of C programming language click here.

Now in this post we will learn about the different types of data types, their size and range in C programming Language.

DATA TYPES

A C language programmer has to tell the system earlier about the type of number or character he is going to use in his program. These are known as ‘data types’. There are many data types in C language. A C programmer has to use appropriate data type as per the requirements.

C Language data types can be broadly classified as :

  1. Primary data type
  2. Derived data type
  3. User-defined data type

Primary Data Type

The following fundamental data types are accepted by the C Compilers :

1. Integer int
2. Character char
3. Floating Point float
4. Double Precision floating point double
5. Void void

The size and range of each data type is given in the table below:

DATA TYPE RANGE OF VALUES
char -128 to 127
Int -32768 to 32767
float 3.4 e-38 to 3.4 e+38
double 1.7 e-308 to 1.7 e+308

Now let us study the different types of data types in C Programming Language in detail:

Integer Type:

Integers are whole numbers with machine dependent range of values. A good programming language should support the programmer by giving  control on a range of numbers and storage space to the programmer. C has 3 Classes of integer storage named as short int, int and long int. All of these data types have their signed and unsigned forms. A short int requires half of the space than normal integer values. Unsigned numbers are always positive and consume all the bits for the magnitude of the number the long and unsigned integers are used to declare a long range of values.

Floating point types:

Floating point numbers represents a real number with 6 digits of Precision. Floating point numbers are denoted by the keyword ‘float’. When the accuracy of the floating point number becomes insufficient, we can use the double to define the number with more accuracy and precision. The double datatype is same as float datatype but provides good precision than float datatype. To extend the Precision more we can use long double which consumes 80 bits of memory space.

Void type:

Using void data type, we can specify the type of a function. It is a good practice to use void datatype to those  functions that does not return any values to the calling function.

Character type:

A single character can be defined as a defined character type of data. Characters are usually stored in 8 bits of internal storage. The qualifiers signed or unsigned can be explicitly applied to char. Unsigned characters have values ranging between 0 and 255, signed characters have values from -128 to 127.

Size and range of Data Types on 16 bit machine.

DATA TYPE SIZE(Bits) Range
 Char or Signed Char 8 -128 to 127
 Unsigned Char 8 0 to 255
 Int or Signed Int 16 -32768 to 32767
Unsigned Int  16  0 to 65535
 Short Int or Signed Short Int  8 -128 to 127
 Unsigned Short Int 8  0 to 255
  Long Int or Signed Long Int  32  -2147483648 to 2147483647
 Unsigned Long Int  32 0 to 4294967295
 Float 32 3.4 e-38 to 3.4 e+38
 Double  64  1.7 e-308 to 1.7 e+308
 Long Double 80  3.4 e-4932 to 3.4 e+4932

Some of the examples are:

int sum;

int number, salary;

float radius;

double distance;

long double average, mean;

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